In the last weeks, some news have indirectly revolutionized the field of research connected to the E-Cat, as the more attentive readers know. In practice, two new lines of research completely “pure” have emerged: Hydrogen-Lithium (Li-H) and Nickel-Hydrogen (H-Ni), both with positive results (excess heat and not only) at high temperature and, therefore, surprising.
I thought it would be useful, for the readers and also for the specialists, to summarize in a very simplified table made with Excel the framework of the various lines of current research, directly or indirectly related to the E-Cat. Since the table was too wide, I had to divide it into two parts. Clearly, the two tables should be read as if they were part of a single larger table with the two parts aligned horizontally on the same line. Click on the pictures to enlarge them.
A simplified review of the lines of research connected, directly or indirectly, to the E-Cat.
In both the tables, I highlighted with a different color all the cells with the most relevant data. They are in fact a useful basis for more extensive evaluations or for future research strategies by professional researchers. However, here are a number of my preliminary comments:
1) First, we note that there are 5 different lines of research: two by Andrea Rossi/IH (Low Temperature E-Cat and Hot-Cat, respectively), and three by other independent groups, among which the China Institute of Atomic Energy and the Unified Gravity LLC (USA). Two lines of the three are the “pure” lines previously mentioned, while the third is the “classical” H-Ni + Li followed by Alexander Parkhomov, the MFMP and others.
2) The lines followed by independent researchers are all at high temperature, while those developed by Rossi are at low and medium temperature, respectively. This is not surprising, given that Rossi has some “secret” still not revealed: probably, but not necessarily, a chemical catalyst (in alternative, a special treatment of the fuel, or other).
3) We note that the line of research H-Li has shown the existence of nuclear reactions Hydrogen-Lithium in the presence of a plasma proton-Lithium (p-Li), that according to the researchers you can have only at temperatures higher than 750 °C, when Lithium vaporizes.
The Hydrogen-Lithium Fusion Device used by Unified Gravity LLC, including a proton-Lithium plasma generator (from their international patent application).
4) The line of pure research H-Ni is particularly interesting because, with a reactor consisting of a wire of Nickel in an atmosphere of Hydrogen, the aforementioned Chinese group has shown that it produces excess heat – but also clear hot-spots, as we can see from the SEM photos below – without the use of catalysts, and this seems a very important result probably obtained for the first time, at least with a so simple device.
Clear hot-spots obtained in a “pure” Ni-H experiment by the China Institute of Atomic Energy.
5) Regarding the correlation of the reaction products effectively detected with the expectations from theory, only the line H-Li gave fully satisfactory results. In fact, the cited reactor allowed to detect the production of alpha particles, i.e. Helium nuclei, of high-energy (some MeV), which is exactly what it is expected from fusion reactions of Hydrogen-Lithium.
The expected reactions Li-H for standard metallic Lithium: a very good agreement with the experimental data by Unified Gravity LLC, a rare occurrence in LENR!
6) The situation begins to be apparently quite clear also with regard to the line of research H-Ni + Li, where the Chinese group has detected, analyzing the ashes of the fuel used, a depletion around 1% of only two isotopes, Ni- 64 and Li-6, with no material changes in the other isotopes. It should be noted that these are the first public data on this type of analysis.
7) On the contrary, the public data provided in the Third Party Report (TPR-2) by Lugano Team are very contradictory with those of the H-Ni + Li line of research. In fact, they show that, apart from the Ni-62 and Li-6, all remaining isotopes are depleted. The authors of the TPR-2 explain in a plausible manner the possible depletion of Li-7, but not that of the various Nickel isotopes, which thus remains a mystery.
8) We believe, however, that probably Rossi uses one or more unknown chemical catalysts, which could be a plausible explanation for these anomalous and contradictory results. In addition, we know that the E-Cat produces energy mainly through gamma rays in the range 50-100 keV, as revealed by the same Rossi in Zurich and anticipated by the physicist Hanno Essen in a private communication to some Swedish colleagues (30-150 keV).
9) It is unclear whether the E-Cat produced gamma rays at 511 keV, the absence of which would exclude reactions of the type p + Ni(x) -> Cu(x+1) because some of the unstable (and radioactive) copper atoms should undergo a beta decay and the produced positron an electron-positron annihilation at 511 keV, as noted by the nuclear physicist Sergio Focardi in 2008. The gamma rays at 511 keV were confirmed by Hanno Essen to his Swedish colleagues but they have never been detected in public tests, perhaps for not good measurements. An official statement from Rossi in this regard would be highly desirable.
Even from a simple analysis such as the just presented, it is clear the need to carry out, in the future, investigations in several directions, not limiting to explore only the “classical” line a-la-Parkhomov, or H-Ni + Li. The research institutions and state universities could (and should!) provide the largest contribution to this study, given the necessity of isotopic analyses of reagents and products taken from the hot-spots.
The isotopic analysis of fuels and ashes should be a “must” in LENR research. Here we see a Ionization Mass Spectrometer (IMS), which can measure isotopic ratios.
This historical period reminds one that revolutionized Physics in the first half of the last century, and it is embarrassing to see, in this century, the silence of the mainstream science. Some free and enterprising men are literally rewriting Physics under our eyes and Academia seems literally “to sleep”, although each of the lines of research illustrated may generate, sooner or later, one or more Nobel Prizes for Physics and/or Chemistry.
I recommend, finally, to read the patent application WO 2014/189799 A9 (Hydrogen-Lithium Fusion Device) by Unified Gravity LLC and the Power Point presentation titled Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Occurring in Hydrogen-Loaded Nickel Wire written by the Ni-H Research Group operating at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. You can find them easily on Internet and most of this post is based on these lighting documents.
ALESSANDRO CAVALIERI is a physicist who teaches Mathematics and Physics in a secondary school, in Northern Italy. His cultural interests goes from Chaos Theory to the Mind-Matter connections. He loves to read books on the history of Physics.