Our collaborator Alessandro Cavalieri sent me, on my request, an original review post about the last developments in research labs related to the E-Cat and some desirable future strategies:
In the last weeks, some news have indirectly revolutionized the field of research connected to the E-Cat, as the more attentive readers know. In practice, two new lines of research completely “pure” have emerged: Hydrogen-Lithium (Li-H) and Nickel-Hydrogen (H-Ni), both with positive results (excess heat and not only) at high temperature and, therefore, surprising.
I thought it would be useful, for the readers and also for the specialists, to summarize in a very simplified table made with Excel the framework of the various lines of current research, directly or indirectly related to the E-Cat. Since the table was too wide, I had to divide it into two parts. Clearly, the two tables should be read as if they were part of a single larger table with the two parts aligned horizontally on the same line. Click on the pictures to enlarge them.
A simplified review of the lines of research connected, directly or indirectly, to the E-Cat.
In both the tables, I highlighted with a different color all the cells with the most relevant data. They are in fact a useful basis for more extensive evaluations or for future research strategies by professional researchers. However, here are a number of my preliminary comments:
1) First, we note that there are 5 different lines of research: two by Andrea Rossi/IH (Low Temperature E-Cat and Hot-Cat, respectively), and three by other independent groups, among which the China Institute of Atomic Energy and the Unified Gravity LLC (USA). Two lines of the three are the “pure” lines previously mentioned, while the third is the “classical” H-Ni + Li followed by Alexander Parkhomov, the MFMP and others.
2) The lines followed by independent researchers are all at high temperature, while those developed by Rossi are at low and medium temperature, respectively. This is not surprising, given that Rossi has some “secret” still not revealed: probably, but not necessarily, a chemical catalyst (in alternative, a special treatment of the fuel, or other).
3) We note that the line of research H-Li has shown the existence of nuclear reactions Hydrogen-Lithium in the presence of a plasma proton-Lithium (p-Li), that according to the researchers you can have only at temperatures higher than 750 °C, when Lithium vaporizes.
The Hydrogen-Lithium Fusion Device used by Unified Gravity LLC, including a proton-Lithium plasma generator (from their international patent application).
4) The line of pure research H-Ni is particularly interesting because, with a reactor consisting of a wire of Nickel in an atmosphere of Hydrogen, the aforementioned Chinese group has shown that it produces excess heat – but also clear hot-spots, as we can see from the SEM photos below – without the use of catalysts, and this seems a very important result probably obtained for the first time, at least with a so simple device.
Clear hot-spots obtained in a “pure” Ni-H experiment by the China Institute of Atomic Energy.
5) Regarding the correlation of the reaction products effectively detected with the expectations from theory, only the line H-Li gave fully satisfactory results. In fact, the cited reactor allowed to detect the production of alpha particles, i.e. Helium nuclei, of high-energy (some MeV), which is exactly what it is expected from fusion reactions of Hydrogen-Lithium.
The expected reactions Li-H for standard metallic Lithium: a very good agreement with the experimental data by Unified Gravity LLC, a rare occurrence in LENR!
6) The situation begins to be apparently quite clear also with regard to the line of research H-Ni + Li, where the Chinese group has detected, analyzing the ashes of the fuel used, a depletion around 1% of only two isotopes, Ni- 64 and Li-6, with no material changes in the other isotopes. It should be noted that these are the first public data on this type of analysis.
7) On the contrary, the public data provided in the Third Party Report (TPR-2) by Lugano Team are very contradictory with those of the H-Ni + Li line of research. In fact, they show that, apart from the Ni-62 and Li-6, all remaining isotopes are depleted. The authors of the TPR-2 explain in a plausible manner the possible depletion of Li-7, but not that of the various Nickel isotopes, which thus remains a mystery.
8) We believe, however, that probably Rossi uses one or more unknown chemical catalysts, which could be a plausible explanation for these anomalous and contradictory results. In addition, we know that the E-Cat produces energy mainly through gamma rays in the range 50-100 keV, as revealed by the same Rossi in Zurich and anticipated by the physicist Hanno Essen in a private communication to some Swedish colleagues (30-150 keV).
9) It is unclear whether the E-Cat produced gamma rays at 511 keV, the absence of which would exclude reactions of the type p + Ni(x) -> Cu(x+1) because some of the unstable (and radioactive) copper atoms should undergo a beta decay and the produced positron an electron-positron annihilation at 511 keV, as noted by the nuclear physicist Sergio Focardi in 2008. The gamma rays at 511 keV were confirmed by Hanno Essen to his Swedish colleagues but they have never been detected in public tests, perhaps for not good measurements. An official statement from Rossi in this regard would be highly desirable.
Even from a simple analysis such as the just presented, it is clear the need to carry out, in the future, investigations in several directions, not limiting to explore only the “classical” line a-la-Parkhomov, or H-Ni + Li. The research institutions and state universities could (and should!) provide the largest contribution to this study, given the necessity of isotopic analyses of reagents and products taken from the hot-spots.
The isotopic analysis of fuels and ashes should be a “must” in LENR research. Here we see a Ionization Mass Spectrometer (IMS), which can measure isotopic ratios.
This historical period reminds one that revolutionized Physics in the first half of the last century, and it is embarrassing to see, in this century, the silence of the mainstream science. Some free and enterprising men are literally rewriting Physics under our eyes and Academia seems literally “to sleep”, although each of the lines of research illustrated may generate, sooner or later, one or more Nobel Prizes for Physics and/or Chemistry.
I recommend, finally, to read the patent application WO 2014/189799 A9 (Hydrogen-Lithium Fusion Device) by Unified Gravity LLC and the Power Point presentation titled Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Occurring in Hydrogen-Loaded Nickel Wire written by the Ni-H Research Group operating at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. You can find them easily on Internet and most of this post is based on these lighting documents.
ALESSANDRO CAVALIERI is a physicist who teaches Mathematics and Physics in a secondary school, in Northern Italy. His cultural interests goes from Chaos Theory to the Mind-Matter connections. He loves to read books on the history of Physics.
LENRIA, the new LENR Industry Association presented at ICCF-19 by Steve Katinsky and David Nagel – and now also online with a website – is potentially one of the most important news in the field.
It is a not-for-profit organization, as described in the website, “to advocate for both scientific study and, especially, commercial advancement of the field”. It joins the already existing LENR Cities on the marketing front of these new technologies but it aims to provide a variety of services to its members.
LENRIA’s recipients are, from one hand, LENR companies, Government agencies, Universities laboratories and, on the other side, Engineers, Scientists, Consultants, Technical personnel, Students. It’s incredible to see how many important companies are already involved in research on LENR (see the extremely clear picture).
A very well done slide presented by Katinsky and Nagel at ICCF-19.
The importance of an industrial association lies in being able to defend, in an organized way, the common interests of its members. These associations usually do a work seemingly invisible but actually very important to creating a lobby operating in the appropriate venues.
LENR may, for example, be deemed comparable to renewables, but a specific legislation is needed to enjoy similar incentives in the future. Organizations like LENRIA can be supportive of political initiatives in such a direction, and this is only the tip of the iceberg of the possible significant contributes to our movement.
In Italy, in recent years, many “Parliamentary Questions” have been submitted (you can see an example in the picture below) and they have not yet been received an answer. In this Country many politicians at the highest level are already aware of the revolution that might be coming and they still do not know what position to take.
An official question about LENR presented to the Italian Parliament on May 16, 2014.
Structures like LENRIA can help the stakeholders to decide for funding LENR research or support this revolution, if they act in an active way in the “circles” that counts. A completely new business is rising and it is an opportunity for all the people directly or indirectly involved.
Obviously, it is not a game for children. It is a demanding job that must be done by experts and authoritative people. I think LENRIA was founded by the right people, although soon they will need the support of other forces and perhaps input from the outside.
Steve Katinsky is a successful entrepreneur who became in recent years a LENR advocate and thus can be a game changer if he take it as a mission. He has founded multiple Internet based enterprises and now is a board member of Technorati, which is one of the 10 most important companies of USA in its category.
David Nagel does not need any presentation, being notoriously one of the most experienced scientists in the field of LENR and beyond, as well as an excellent teacher. He is retired from the Naval Research Laboratory, a US Navy research center in the USA, but the world of LENR still needs his endless enthusiasm and his clear vision of the situation.
The just published website of LENRIA, where you can register and download some files.
I hope LENRIA can stimulate a wide international cooperation in the field of LENR, although I realize that it is not easy, for many reasons. MFMP paved the way of a collaborative venture. It is only with the joining forces that we can achieve important results of which everyone can benefit. We must choose between a bright or dark future!
I sincerely hope that the next edition of ICCF – the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science – can be assigned to a structure that has the due regard for the media.
In fact, the following is the unfortunate story that happened to me and that I think hurts the LENR world and all the people who, like me, dedicate with passion and professionalism their time to try to bring these issues to a wider public, including top politicians and notable scientists, as already documented in previous occasions.
Here is briefly what happened. About three months ago, I dedicated a post to ICCF-19 and, after some weeks, I sent an e-mail to the local organizer proposing a written interview, imagining that it would make him happy, because in the last few months very few posts (if not “0”) on ICCF-19 had been published even on the blogs specialized on LENR.
So, on January 6 I wrote at the cold and impersonal address – no physical person mentioned! – indicated in the web site of ICCF-19: firstname.lastname@example.org. But I didn’t receive a response, so I did not know if my letter had been read or not. Therefore, more than two weeks later, on January 22, I wrote again asking if the organizer was interested or not in being interviewed.
I finally received an answer, because in the meantime I had known through friends the name of the person who reads the e-mails in the private company organizing ICCF-19 and therefore I had sent the e-mail just to this person. Well, the reply was positive: I could send the questions for Eng. La Gatta. Therefore, I spent an entire weekend to document about the company and to prepare the questions, which you find at the end of this post.
On January 27, I sent the questions. But I never received the answers, or justifications for the growing delay. After 5 (five!) weeks, on March 3, I kindly requested the promised response, not just for me but for the readers, who certainly deserve the maximum respect from those who organize such an event. But to date, I have not received feedback.
Finally, to be fair, on March 11 I informed the man managing the e-mails of ICCF-19 for the local organizer that, having lost a weekend to prepare the interview, the questions would have been published in any case and therefore they would not have made a good impression. I also indicated next 10 days as a final deadline for sending the answers.
Again, no answers, no justifications, anything (!). I leave you to judge whether this is the proper way to interact with the media by the organizer of a public event as ICCF.
For this reason I have decided not to cover the event and not to be present in Padua. Maybe I have a concept of professionalism and good manners too high for the Italian standards (see also what is happening with the EXPO in Milan), but I was brought up to work well.
That’s all, no further comments are needed. I wish everyone a Happy Easter!
The QUESTIONS (of the accepted interview) STILL WAITING for a reply:
1) Eng. La Gatta, thank you for accepting this interview. Do you remember when and how did you get interested in Cold Fusion or LENR for the first time?
2) How and when did you get the idea of organizing a major and complex event such as an International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF)?
3) Your company, TSEM, is quoted in the Italian stock exchange, so shares price can benefit from investments in a so promising field. What are the activities of TSEM and how do they reconcile with LENR?
4) About 5 years ago, you led TSEM into the study of high bandwidth calorimetric measurement of palladium excess heat. What types of researches, if any, are you performing or planning now? Have you ever tried to replicate Rossi’s reactors?
5) LENR can be a business also not having a working reactor to sell: some years ago, your Company provided a calorimeter to SRI. If an Italian or foreign Company is interested in buying a calorimeter for LENR, can TSEM provide a turnkey product or other kinds of products/support for LENR?
6) We saw you sitting next to Bill Gates in his visit at ENEA last year, and I’ve read somewhere that he will be at ICCF-19. Can you confirm this participation and do you think that finally Gates will invest on Italian researchers (public or private)?
7) In this edition of ICCF, you’ve added an “Engineering Application Committee”, a direct link between academia and industry. In practice, what tasks will have this committee?
8) ICCF-19 has received the “High Patronage” from the Italian Prime Minister’s Office. It seems a first tangible sign that the political class is opening to these researches. Is this also your feeling?
My photo that showed Rossi’s lab seems to have caught the attention of many people, hundreds of whom have visited this website. The image was literally passed to the “X-ray”.
I read the comments appeared on various Italian and international blogs and forums, so I would like to summarize here the most interesting observations. I think that makes sense, given that many of the measurement instruments seem identical to those used in the 2nd independent test.
According to andrea.s, an engineer who writes also on Cobraf: “A 3-phase supply is applied in a star configuration (3 phase 4 wire) to the 3 Hot-Cats”, but “each Hot-Cat is powered by one phase line and connected to a common neutral daisy-chained from one Hot-Cat to another. Wiring is so long, and neutral wiring length so uneven, that there can be no “electromagnetic pulses” other than the 50 Hz sinusoid fractioned by the AC regulator thyristors”.
The electrical engineer Bob Higgins, on Vortex, is substantially of the same opinion: “Each Hot-Cat is connected with 2-wires only: each is connected single-phase! This probably means that the Hot-Cat only relies on heat-up, not magnetic field interaction – certainly not rotating field interaction. So replication does not need to use a 3-phase heater coil inside the Hot-Cat because there is no need to simulate an industrial environment”.
A reader on E-Cat World points out: “The use of 3-phase power during testing inadvertently sidetracked many independent observers when in reality it was just a convenience for management or equipment reasons”. And AlainCo writes on LENR Forum: “It is designed for industrial application where phase balance is important. As soon as you consume few dozen kW, the electric company asks you to use 3-phase and to balance your consumption”.
On Vortex Bob Higgins adds, about the gray box in the photo: “The gray box controller is controlling the energy to all 3 Hot-Cats via the red 3-phase SCR controller in such a way as to control the temperature of each Hot-Cat independently. This gray box controller is designed to control each Hot-Cat solely based on 1 temperature measurement per Hot-Cat”.
Higgins also clarifies its function: “The temperature controllers mounted on the gray box are probably each controlling the set-point of each Hot-Cat (i.e. they are not being used just as temperature meters). A microcontroller in the gray box may read each meter (RS232) and then sets the SCR angle for that phase to control the power to each Hot-Cat”.
The engineer Gerard McEk on E-Cat World instead focuses his attention on the little yellow paper on the bottom left corner of the table (see the image above): “It shows the shape of the currents due to the triac control. It seems that Andrea Rossi is also interested in that shape. If the triac controller was just installed to control the heat input, you would not be very interested in the shape of the currents”.
Finally, ThomasM observes, like many other readers elsewhere: “When I look at the electrical installation on the walls it’s an American type installation, not Italian sockets”. And Andre Blum adds: “Also the extension cord / splitter on the ground is one found typically in the US”.
Better than Sherlock Holmes! 😉
For a psychologist, the blogs are a very very interesting environment…
You can read comments made by people who talk about articles or books without reading them or, conversely, faithful and objective analysis or reviews. Among these last, I point out that written by Andre Blum. I saw that he is a long-time reader and commentator of the blog E-Cat World.
Needless to say, he shows that he read my book carefully. Thank you, Andre!