In these days I did a long interview with Andrea Rossi. I would like to dedicate it as a special New Year gift to all those who bought, or will buy, my book “E-Cat – The New Fire”.
1) When you were a child, have you ever dreamed of inventing something that would changed the world? Who has been your “model”?
“I was fascinated from the character of Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of the penicillin. I was asthmatic at high degree, and my mother repeated many times that I was alive thanks to Fleming. I wanted to do something as he did. That has been my first model, apart my parents”.
2) In your family there were other people having a love for science or for inventions?
“Yes, my mother and my father mainly, and my grandfather. In particular my mother. I learnt from them that only with hard work you can do something valid. They were very hard workers and made me feel guilty every time I was doing nothing… so I had always to invent something to do”.
3) In the biography I wrote is mentioned your theatrical experience. Where does your passion come from and how do you reconcile it with your very different career path that led you to do this epochal invention?
“I was nineteen years old, and I loved theater, in particular Bertold Brecht. I had seen the ‘Santa Giovanna dei Macelli’ directed by Giorgio Strehler and I wanted to learn ‘regia teatrale’, i.e. theatrical direction, that was taught at the school of the ‘Piccolo Teatro di Milano’, in Milan. The director was Giorgio Strehler and the course was very interesting. I learnt many very useful things. It was a top level school: Gabriele Salvatores was in the same course I attended. We started together an experimental theater, ‘Teatro Popolare Zara’, but he continued and won an Oscar with the movie ‘Mediterraneo’, while I had in the same period the intuition of the process to make fuel from wastes and decided to follow this route of destiny”.
4) I wonder if your past business, oil from waste, has been of help to develop an appropriate strategy in this new challenge, regarding the E-Cat.
“Yes, it has, because I have set up an industry, managing R&D, manufacturing, sales. I learnt a lot, also in this case with a bumpy path of trials and errors”.
5) What memories do you have of Prof. Sergio Focardi, as a scientist as well as a man?
“He was very generous, as usually are professors, in transmitting his knowledge. I learnt from him many theoretical issues and rehearsed my mathematic skills: he was a very strong mathematic. He strongly believed in LENR and he was convinced that it was not necessary to look for exotic physics to explain them, it was enough to study well the existing Standard Model. He was extremely honest, sincere. We worked extremely well together when we set up the experiments in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011; in 2012 his health began to be critical, but the day before dying he was clutching with his hands the copy of the 2013 report of the Independent Third Party: he couldn’t speak, but was reading the report with the light of God in his eyes”.
Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi (1932-2013), professor emeritus of Physics at the University of Bologna. He collaborated with Rossi on the development of the Energy Catalyzer, or “E-Cat”.
6) I imagine that in these years you have received many pressures and threats against your project, the E-Cat. If so, have you ever thought to give up everything?
“Until I will be alive I will work on this. Pressures sustained with threats, blackmails have on my work the same effect of tennis balls served against a tank”.
7) What was the best moment for you during these years of hard work on the E-Cat?
“The publication of the 2014 Independent Third Party report. For obvious reasons”.
8) Can you tell us the more funny story than happened to you concerning the E-Cat?
“Never happened anything particularly funny. It has been a continuous struggle against problems after problems. We did not get fun at all, like soldiers during a war. Our team has worked – and is working – with a focus that does not leave space to get fun. I am sorry, but I am thinking on your question and I am not able to find anything funny”.
9) Can you give us a comparison between the work on the E-Cat in Italy and in the US? What are the pro and con that you met in these two countries so different?
“Honestly, I worked very well in Italy as well as I am working in the USA, where I have continued the work started in Italy; the advantages here does not depend on me, but on the fact that here I found a Team that accelerated the evolution of this technology: a great team that is working very, very hard. Industrial Heat is the maximum level of help I could dream of, in any field”.
10) Having a team of engineers and physicists working for the E-Cat has relieved you from your work in some way?
“The team of Industrial Heat has allowed to accelerate the evolution and also the progress towards the diffusion of this technology in the market”.
11) What are the obstacles or difficulties that remain to be overcome so that the E-Cat can reach the ultimate goal, which is the market?
“As a matter of fact, the E-Cat has already reached the market. The 1 MW plant we are focused on right now is a plant installed in the factory of a Customer of Industrial Heat. From now on the performance of our plants will not be measured in scientific tests, but in real production of thermal energy that the plant makes for the production necessities of the same Customer. If the Customer will make with our plant the money he is expecting to make, the plant is good, otherwise will have to be corrected. Failure is not an option”.
12) Do you think the fact that there are competitors who engage in the LENR may ultimately benefit you to open a road otherwise bureaucratically difficult?
“I never comment the work of our competitors and we do not take into account any influence of our Competitors related to our work. We have to make our work at the best and reach our targets independently from what happens outside our reach”.
13) At what point is the theoretical understanding of the “Rossi Effect” and what percentage of your efforts is headed in that direction?
“I think I have all the equations ready to understand the theoretical fundamentals of the so-called ‘Rossi Effect‘. The publication is so far constrained within the particular situation regarding our Intellectual Property and its defense. I can only say that, as foreseen by Prof. Sergio Focardi, we are well inside the Standard Model. As Focardi said, it is just necessary to study it well to understand LENR, it is not necessary to go for exotics”.
14) What was the most ferocious criticism received over the years? And which was instead the most beautiful compliment?
“I have been disgusted of the fact that to fight against me our enemies have used the vicissitudes of my past, so that I had to defend myself, 20 years later, from things that have nothing to do with my present work. After the 2013 test of the Independent Third Party, Prof. Sven Kullander, Chairman of the Energy Committe of the Swedish Royal Academy of Science, said to me when I went to the University of Uppsala to prepare the protocol for the 2014 test: ‘The so-called Rossi Effect exists beyond any possible doubt‘. This has been surely the most important recognition I had so far”.
Prof. Sven Kullander (in the box) has been a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Science (photo), the prestigious body that awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry.
15) Regarding the often personal and violent attacks to the numerous authors of the 2nd Third Party Report, there is something that you want to say?
“When Albert Einstein published his Theory of Relativity, he has been initially attacked and criticized as if Relativity was a clownery. Honestly, I didn’t read any critic worth an answer that has not been answered to properly, regarding the Third Party Report you mentioned. From now on the so-called Rossi Effect will talk only with plants in operation. The Customers will say if it works or not. The results could be positive, but also negative, who knows? We’ll see”.
16) What do you think of the replication of the ‘Rossi Effect’ made with a calorimetric system by the Russian scientist Alexander Parkhomov?
“It is possible that, with the data published by the Third Independent Party in the Lugano Report, a replication of the effect is made. I do not know the particulars, therefore I cannot comment; but, if true, congratulations to the Russian Scientist”.
17) What are your expectations for the New Year? And in particular about the work on the various types of E-Cats that you are doing?
“I think the 2015 will bring: 1- the consolidation of the technology of the 1 MW plant in operation in the factory of the Customer; 2- the gas-fueled Hot-Cat. We are working at the maximum of our skills to get these targets. With the help of God it may be that we will be successful!”.
Copyright © 2014 Vessela Nikolova for “Vessy’s Blog on E-Cat” – All rights reserved.
As almost all of us know, the 19th edition of the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-19) will be held in Padua, Italy, on April 13-17, 2015.
The event is organized by TSEM SpA, the first private company to independently host ICCF. It is a leader, in Italy and not only, in developing know-how of excellence for the research, design and manufacture of innovative technologies in the fields of Healthcare, Energy and Security.
The website of the Conference is still under construction, but we can provide some information here. You can also sign up for their newsletter to receive updates.
Antonio La Gatta, engineer and professor, is the founder and President of TSEM, and the Chair of ICCF-19. He explains that “The purpose of ICCF-19 will be to discuss recent scientific findings as well as to encourage a more general public interest, encouraging a better understanding of the significance of this research and how it will impact society”.
The program of the Conference has not yet been published, but we know that there will be contributions on many areas: Calorimetry, Materials, Nuclear Measures, Theory, Technologies. The deadline for abstract submission is January 10, 2015. The time limit to enroll the Conference is February 15, 2015.
Interestingly, about four years ago, La Gatta led TSEM into the study of high bandwidth calorimetric measurement of palladium excess heat. Moreover, in the past his company has provided closed cell isoperibolic calorimeters to the Sidney Kimmel Institute for Nuclear Renaissance (SKINR) – University of Missouri and collaborated also with Stanford Research International (SRI), The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the Italian ENEA.
It is a real pleasure to read the history of the previous editions of ICCF in their website. The first edition, ICCF-1, dates back to 1990 and was in the USA (chair: Fritz), the second held in Italy (chairs: Preparata-Del Giudice-Bressani). Also ICCF-15, in 2009, took place in Italy, Rome (chairs: Violante-Lesin). Last edition, ICCF-18, was held in Columbia (USA).
Padua is a small Italian town located in the North-East of the country with about 209,000 inhabitants and since 1222 is home to a prestigious University that ranks among the oldest in the world.
The city of Padua has been called “the capital of the painting of the fourteenth century”, and we can find the most important pictorial evidence of this heritage in the Giotto’s series in the Scrovegni Chapel.
For the most avid of science, only 8 km from Padua are the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), one of the four big laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). LNL have a leading position with regard to the study of the microscopic world known as “the structure and dynamics of the atomic nucleus“.
I interviewed Mats Lewan, science writer and engineer, author of the book “An impossible invention”, who some weeks ago has published the second edition of his essay:
1) When and how did you start to be interested in the E-Cat and Andrea Rossi?
“As I write in my book, I first heard about Rossi and the E-Cat through a tip from a reader of the Swedish technology weekly Ny Teknik, where I work as a reporter since about 15 years. The reader told me about blog reports on the semi-public demo of the E-Cat in January 2011″.
2) To write your book you’ve interviewed many protagonists of the story. What is the interview that eventually struck you the most and why?
“Most astonishing was maybe the very first phone call that I made after having learnt about the E-Cat demo to the Swedish physicist – and at that time also the chairman of the Swedish Skeptics Society – Hanno Essén, who surprised me by saying ‘this looks interesting’ “.
3) When and how did you guessed that the invention of Rossi was something real?
“Almost immediately I decided that it shouldn’t be excluded that the technology was possible. The basic principle was release of excess thermal energy through a yet unknown kind of nuclear reaction, and I couldn’t see any reason to believe that new knowledge in nuclear physics was impossible. But my assessment that there are good reasons to believe that the E-Cat works, grew slowly and gradually through my contacts with the people involved, through their testimonials and from my own measurements and observations”.
4) For your direct perception, in Sweden the story of the E-Cat was received more positively by the academic world and in the media, compared to other countries?
“No, I don’t think so. There are more people aware of the story in Sweden compared to other countries, and I dare to claim that basically the only reason for this is my reporting in Ny Teknik. But the general and academic opinion is very much the same as anywhere else — a great deal of curiosity, especially among people with interest in technology and energy, but above all a strong skepticism, particularly in the scientific community”.
5) On what do you base your assessment that the E-Cat probably works?
“It has been noted repeatedly that there are several possible sources of errors in all measurements that have been made on the E-Cat, and that is true. On the other hand there’s yet no evidence for these possible errors being real errors. But in the end, what makes me tip towards thinking that the E-Cat works, are several testimonials of when the reaction has gone awry. Yet, these are only testimonials, and you’ll have to trust the people behind them. Another influential event, however, was during a demo in October 2011 when the E-Cat worked in self sustained mode, i.e. with no external energy input, for almost four hours. And even though water was constantly being pumped into the E-Cat, and the casing was poorly insulated, it kept boiling inside, which I could hear and feel with my hands – and the external temperature remained at between 60 and 85 degrees centigrade. You would need a very powerful energy storage inside the E-Cat to achieve this without any heat producing process inside, and when the casing was opened at the end of the day, no such storage was evidently hidden inside”.
6) The Elforsk and Swedish licensee are very involved in the activities of Rossi. Do you think that Sweden is one of the preferential markets of E-Cat?
“I really don’t know. Rossi says he still has plans for some kind of center of production in Sweden, and his relationship with the licensee Hydrofusion seems to be good, but even if the technology really works, there are still too many unknowns regarding the market, the technology and Rossi’s business to answer this question. I think it’s a good thing though that Swedish entities move at an early stage, and I find it courageous by Elforsk to take this position”.
7) What is the more funny personal anecdote happened to you concerning the E-Cat?
When during one of Rossi’s demos in Bologna, three Italian supporters of Rossi from a small village in the mountains, 250 kilometers from Bologna, showed up in a car, opened the trunk and prepared a beautiful Italian ‘aperitivo’ with local delicacies from their region, accompanied with some excellent sparkling ‘Prosecco’ wine.
8) The history of the E-Cat is more intriguing than a novel, but at this time only a part of my information was disclosed in the book. Was the same for you?
“No, I have to admit that with very few exceptions I have revealed everything I have learnt and discovered regarding this story in my book, at least everything that I find relevant and with a reasonable degree of credibility. I find it interesting that you say that there’s a lot you have not been able to report at this point, and I look forward to hearing about those things one day!”.
9) How do you think this story will end?
“As I have stated in my book, there’s no generally accepted proof for the E-Cat being a valid technology, but my personal assessment is that there are good reasons to believe that it works. From a more general perspective I can see that there’s strong scientific evidence for LENR, and I’m convinced that if the E-Cat doesn’t work, continued research will turn LENR into an important and useful new energy source anyway within a near future, that will dramatically change the world and solve a series of fundamental global problems, the climate crisis included.
10) So, you’re optimist about the energy future…
Yes, because, from an even broader perspective, Einstein’s well known formula E = mc^2 tells us that energy is incredibly abundant all around us, and that the only problem is to find better, more efficient and less dangerous methods than those we know today – exothermal chemical reactions and a few nuclear reactions, essentially fission and hot fusion – to turn mass into energy. I can see no reason why we couldn’t find many new such methods in the future, which would give us limitless energy. But first we have to discard the detrimental and absurd notion that we have already discovered all possible ways to transform mass into energy”.
MATS LEWAN is a technology and science journalist, author and speaker. He works as a staff writer at the Swedish technology magazine “NyTeknik” and previously has worked at CBS Cnet News. Lewan holds a Master of Science degree in Engineering Physics from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, where he lives with his wife and two children.
Recently there have been many discussions on the effective role played by the 2nd Third Party Report (TPR-2), and by other news about the E-Cat, in the sharp fall in oil price observed in the world financial markets during the last two months.
I asked an Italian trader who in the past has invested in oil market, and who wants to remain anonymous, his opinion on the subject. Here’s his reply:
“In the last 10 years I have invested in oil more than in other commodities or financial indices/markets because I found the behavior of oil market much more predictable. This was until the end of 2011, when I was one of the first Italian investors to read about the E-Cat and to consider this technology a possible game-changer. I realized that sooner or later the oil price would collapse and then with regret I kept away.
In order to answer your inquiry, I had a quick glance at some public data and at analysis on the subject already published by others, and I found three clear ‘signatures’ on the charts – two of which are completely new, and one can be considered a ‘smoking gun’ – showing that the fall in oil price is closely related to the recent news about the E-Cat.
The three ‘signatures’ are well visible in the following pictures:
Fig. 1 – You can see, from the 10-year chart above, that normally on the long term there is a quite good correlation between the oil price and the stock market (here represented by the American S&P 500 Index), being the oil an increasingly scarce resource.
Comparison between the trends of the prices in oil and stock markets during the last 10 years.
I mean that the price of oil, in the last 2-3 decades, has always had a tendency to rise, except in times of great economic crisis (as in 2009, when collapsed). But at this time we are not in one of those periods, so the last sharp fall visible in the oil graph is due to an extremely powerful ‘exogenous’ factor. In the following graphs it will result quite clear what is this factor.
Fig. 2 – The more technical chart below, used by traders and first appeared on November 28 here in a post published in the Sifferkoll blog, shows in detail the strong correlation among some recent news regarding the E-Cat and the daily movements of the oil price.
A technical chart of the Light Sweet Crude Oil futures (from the Sifferkoll blog, slightly modified).
We can see that the beginning of the fall in oil price coincides, on the graph, with the release date of the TPR-2, also known as ‘Lugano Report’, i.e. October 8, 2014. I have added this information on the chart because it was not provided in the original picture.
This is the most important event together with the article appeared the following day on the Elforsk’s website written by the CEO of such company, Magnus Oloffsson, and both are clearly responsible for the so-called ‘4 year channel breakout’.
We also see that the sharp cumulative fall of the oil price is, in reality, the sum of many sales on the oil market triggered also, in the following days, by the many other ‘minor’ news about the E-Cat appeared in the media and quite well illustrated on the chart by its author.
Fig.3 – As you made in your post on the E-Cat popularity, I used – to analyze the issue – Google Trends, which is very powerful tool, and I made a surprisingly discovery. I consider the latter a likely ‘smoking gun’ of the intriguing relationship between the most important recent news about the E-Cat and the sharp fall of oil price. It also gives us an idea of its strength.
If you type on Google Trends ‘Oil price‘ and, later, ‘E-Cat‘, you find (as clearly shown in the picture below prepared with your precious graphical help) that the number of searches for the first term is about 5 times greater, as I would expect, because searching that term are mostly investors, much more numerous than the fans who follow the E-Cat.
A comparison between the number of “Google Searches” for the terms “Oil chart” and “E-cat”.
Well, if now we compare the trends graphs relating to searches for these two terms – ‘Oil price’ and ‘E-Cat’ – in the last year, we find a clear spike in both the searches corresponding exactly to the same period: October 8-12. Since the fans of Rossi’s E-Cat are far fewer than world investors on oil, this means that investors were very careful to follow the release of the Second Third Party Report, announced long before, and they promptly sold”.
I would thank my press agency in Rome for the excellent work… I hope you like it too! 😉
Click on the picture above to see the video clip on You Tube.
You can see this book trailer directly or on my You Tube channel, where you’ll find also the Italian version. Please share the video clip with all your friends!
I take this opportunity to thank all the people who in recent weeks have bought my book and sent their opinion, starting with Dr. Wouter Keller from Holland… 🙂
The electrical engineer and freelance reporter Salvo Mandarà has just published, on his web TV channel Salvo5puntozero.tv, a 52-minutes long interview in Italian with Andrea Rossi, connected via Skype from Miami, USA. I’ve translated it for you.
The following are all – and only – the many relevant parts of the interview, being original with respect to what is already well known. I’ve adapted the questions, which in the original version were very long, and cut all the completely unnecessary parts in the answers:
1) What are the materials used by an E-Cat as a fuel?
“The materials used are relatively common and therefore with a very low cost. The basic components of the fuel, in fact, are nickel, lithium and hydrogen. The hydrogen is produced not through electrolysis but through a thermal process. The hydrogen, in fact, is contained in a molecule, practically in a tablet. With the rising temperature activated by electrical resistors, it is released and then is used in the course of the thermal reactions. Then, when the temperature is lowered again, a good part of the tablet is recomposed, so the hydrogen is recovered”.
2) How the excess energy is produced by an E-Cat?
“The physical process by which the E-Cat works is a process of so-called ‘Low Energy Nuclear Reactions’ or LENR, that is, reactions which take place in the nucleus of an atom at temperatures ‘low’ compared to those normally required for a nuclear reaction, which does not need to be a fusion. In fact, after these years of experimentation, testing, measuring and analysis, we noticed that the main source of energy in our reactor is not so much a fusion, but a shift of the isotopic composition of the atoms contained in the fuel charge. The origin of the thermal excess energy is due to the fact that in such process there is a very small loss in mass, that is transformed into energy according to the famous Einstein’s equation E = mc^2”.
3) Can an E-Cat operate in self-sustained mode?
“Yes. The reactor can be self-sustaining for periods of time long enough. However, also for safety reasons, it is necessary that there is always ready to intervene an external source of energy, that we call ‘drive’. In 24 hours of operation, the system can run in self-sustained mode for about 3/4 of the time, i.e. for 18 hours run in self-sustained mode, but for 6 hours the drive is used. When the reactor is operating in self-sustained mode, its COP is very high for obvious reasons, but also when operating in driving, i.e. with the external power source, there’s always a COP greater than 1”.
4) If there were no safety concerns, could a reactor run without an external drive, i.e. using only the self-produced energy?
“No, for reasons of control of the reaction there must always be the drive, i.e. an amount of energy ready to intervene to moderate the operation of the plant. And having a drive to do with the security, it cannot be intrinsic, that is, cannot depend on the same equipment but must be external. So it is not true that, if there were no safety concerns, the reactor could run in a stand-alone mode”.
5) In a more or less near future, could we dream of having an E-Cat on a car?
“The application of this technology to the automotive industry is extremely complex. I spoke with the CEO of Volvo and with other automotive technicians who were intrigued by this possibility. In the automotive field, there are huge problems from the point of view of safety certification. According to the CEO of Volvo, from the time when technology was ready for automotive application, it would take from 10 to 20 years to complete all the cycles of testing and certification”.
6) When will we see an industrial production of E-Cats?
“As a matter of fact, I would say that the industrial production has already begun, in the sense that now there will be a year of very careful study of a first industrial plant that has been provided to a customer of Industrial Heat. And my job will be stay there 15 hours a day to verify a whole series of details. Indeed, it is the first time that I can finally see a machine in operation continuously for a long period – that is, for one year – and then discover all the problems due to a prolonged use”.
7) When will we see a real mass production of reactors?
“Regarding the real mass production, I can say that mass sales will begin after this year’s audit. Indeed, in this way, when many machines will be delivered, we will be very sure of what will happen to the customer, while now we are still studying above. When I made the first prototype in Italy, I was able to use it only for a few hours, because there were problems, even on the authorization side, to keep in mind. Now I can, finally, work seriously!”.
Translation and adaptation – Copyright © 2014 Vessela Nikolova. All rights reserved.
I interviewed “Dr. Bob”, nickname of a young Russian nuclear engineer creator of the popular website Dr.BoBlog, which addresses the Cold Fusion themes in a very original way:
1) Dr. Bob, can you tell us how did you get interested in science?
“My father was a chemist and since I was a child he approached me to the science. When I played with little cars or build something with Lego, I always dreamed to build flying cars because my father had introduced me to the “Fusion” concept. I imagined that within 100 years everyone would have flying cars. But I took it a step further, dreaming that I could have some fusion-based device installed in my bed. With this technology, whenever I was sad, I could go to my bed and escape from my problems: I could go anywhere! Sometimes, I went with my father to the University where he carried out his research. Often I answered correctly to his scientific questions and a candy was the sweet reward. On those occasions, sometimes he allowed me to ‘play’ with the computer”.
2) When did you get the idea of a website on Cold Fusion?
“The idea for a my website was born much later, influenced by the paranoia of a manager I worked for: a capable character who saw me much promising. He treated all his workers very bad, especially me because in his mind the most important aspect of business was the ability to handle rejection and obey authority. One day, as he took me into his office to offence me, I turned on an audio recorder: you would not believe the things that came out of his mouth! He was so paranoid that he thought I might put the audio recording on a webpage for revenge. At that time, I had just been able to confirm Cold Fusion, so my reasoning was that creating a t-shirt on this theme – and if this technology had gone on the market – I would have had the chance to earn millions”.
3) Once had this “inspiration”, did you try to implement it?
“Yes. The idea grow on me, but I decided that instead of creating just a t-shirt I would create a brand that could compete with Andrea Rossi and his E-Cats. So, I started to plan an elaborate marketing puzzle, which starting from my website might have been spread thanks to web marketing and social media, possibly reaching a global dimension. After recognizing that my goal was almost unachievable, I decided to try it anyway because I could achieve some results pointing to a higher goal than to limit myself to something more modest. Even if I had failed to prove that anything is possible, and that every idea can open up a world of possibilities, I might just inspire others capable to go farther than me”.
4) Which kind of difficulties have you encountered, if any, in communicating to the public a sensitive subject as the Cold Fusion?
“The problem is that there is no group thinking! Humans think to be so smart, but they’re not. Our collective behavior, our dependence on fossil fuels, our denial of the impact that our way of life has on the world we live in, are all very similar to that of an addict slowly killing himself by injecting heroin. Most people do not question authority. Actually, most people never question themselves either; and when we do, we tend to do so within a very small frame of reference. We all believe whatever we want to believe, no matter if it’s true or not. On a larger scale, positive thinking tends to take us farther compared to the negative thinking, so if people started to apply this attitude to themselves, we would all together make faster progress”.
5) How much time do you dedicate to your website? And do you make all the graphic work by yourself or someone helps you?
“The website is only the ‘top of the iceberg’ of what we do. Indeed, most of the time is spent on efforts ‘under the table’, that you don’t see directly. I’m not the only one working on this project: it’s a team effort. If you think that we’re just building a blog, wait and see!”.
6) Surely, you have a continuous feedback from the visitors of your blog. What kind of people is made up your audience?
“The readers of our blog are people who follow very closely the development of the technology. Among our greatest fans there are people from the space industry, a few billionaires, Nobel Prize winners, etc. About 200 visitors a day enter in our website just to see if we have posted any information about Miss Hannah Minx. As it happens on other technology blogs that deal with the Cold Fusion, many of the visitors do not leave many traces”.
7) The involvement of the female figure in popularizing science – as you do in an excellent way – surely works. But do you have a your quantitative estimate of how much?
“In Russia there is a famous saying that says: ‘If women ruled the world there would be no war, just many countries not speaking to each other!’. Women are clearly underrepresented in science and this leads to a lot of aggression. I tend to think that an open dialogue would much smoother if there were more women holding influential positions in our society.
Personally, I work very well together with females, so I try to surround myself with as many as possible. Therefore, I would not give here specific numbers: let’s just say that one of the few benefits of being in the field of Cold Fusion is that women appreciates to see men who fights for a noble cause”.
Thank you Dr. Bob, I wish you great success!
In the picture: Dr. Bob reading with great attention the instructions for a Tokamak fusion reactor.
I received from Eng. Ventola the following second article on the E-Cat technology: in this case, focused on a “Type II” design of the Hot-Cat reactor tested by third parties:
The picture here below, published in a skinny version in the patent application filed by Industrial Heat on April 26, 2014, shows a layered tubular reactor device (Fig. 4), also represented in cross-sectional view (Figg. 5 and 6). It can be described as Energy Catalyzer HT, where HT stands for “high temperature” and it is the second of three different embodiments described in such patent application, so hereinafter I’ll indicate it as “E-Cat HT – II“.
Diagram of a reactor device E-Cat HT “Type II design” (from IH’s patent, slightly modified).
You can use this image provided that you leave its attribution and a proper link.
This reactor, with the powder charge widely and uniformly distributed along the central axis of the reactor, was used in the second of the three tests, or “experiments”, described in the first Third Party Report (TPR-1). Such experiment consisted in a 96-hours run of the device continuously powered – i.e. never operating in self-sustained mode – and was performed, successfully, on December 13-17, 2012 in Ferrara, Italy (see table below about the TPR tests).
All the tests described in the Third Party Reports released from the scientists Levi et al.
According to the dispersive description given in the cited patent and widely integrating the information contained on this issue in the TPR-1, the reactor device (200) used in this experiment was a layered cylindrical device having an inner tube (210). Such inner tube, made of AISI-310 steel, had a 3 mm thick cylindrical wall (212) with a 33 mm diameter.
Two cone-shaped end caps (214) made of AISI-316 steel were hot-hammered into the longitudinal ends of the inner tube, sealing it hermetically. Cap adherence was obtained by exploiting the higher thermal expansion coefficient of AISI-316 steel with respect to AISI-310.
As such, the inner tube constitutes a vessel sealed against ingress or egress of matter, including gaseous hydrogen. This represents a distinction of this type of reactor over previous reaction vessels (normal E-Cat or, if you prefer, E-Cat LT, where LT stands for ‘Low temperature’), that were preloaded with pressured gases such as hydrogen (see the previous Patent Application WO 2009125444, international extension of an Italian patent filed in 2008).
The E-Cat HT “Type II design” before the Third Party test performed on December 13-17, 2012.
You can see the black paint and the power cables to the three internal resistor coils.
The inner tube contained a powder reaction charge (216) uniformly distributed along the axis of the device, and consisting of a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder. However the fuel was, more precisely, a mixture of nickel, hydrogen and a catalyst consisting, according to the TPR-1, of some “additives” pressurized with the hydrogen gas and not disclosed being an industrial trade secret (I hope to discuss this topic in a future article).
A silicon nitride cylindrical outer shell (222), 33 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter, was coated with a special aeronautical-industry grade black paint (produced in the N-E of Italy), capable of withstanding temperatures up to 1200 degrees Celsius. A cylindrical inner shell (218), which was made of different ceramic material – corundum – was located within the outer shell.
The inner shell housed three delta-connected spiral-wire resistor coils (220), which were laid out horizontally, parallel to and equidistant from the center axis of the device. The three resistor coils essentially run the interior length of the device and were independently wired to a power supply by wires (230) that extended outward from the reactor device (see Fig. 6).
The resistor coils within the reactor were fed by a Triac power regulator device (302, see Fig. 7) which interrupted each phase periodically, in order to modulate the power input with a controlled waveform, which is an industrial trade secret waveform. This procedure, needed to properly activate the powder reaction charge, had no bearing on the power consumption of the device, which remained constant throughout the experiment.
The experimental setup of the second test on a Hot-Cat reactor described in this article.
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Due to the failure in the first test performed in November 2012, when the primer resistor coils were run at about 1 kW, in this second experiment the continuous power input to the reactor was limited to a much lower value, 360 W, so the E-Cat HT’s hourly power consumption was 360 W. The E-Cat HT’s power production was almost constant, with an average of 1609 W (Fig. 8).
A wide band-pass power quality monitor (320) – a PCE-830 Power and Harmonics Analyzer produced by PCE Instruments – measuring the electrical quantities on each of the three phases was used to record the power absorbed by the resistor coils. It was connected directly to the reactor device resistor coil power cables by three clamp ammeters (326) and three probes (328), respectively for current and voltage measurements.
Finally, an IR thermography camera (306), model Optris PI Thermal Imager, was used to acquire a thermal image on a display (312) and to measure the surface temperature of the reactor device with a 2% precision of measured value, in order to make an infrared thermographic calorimetry. The thermal camera was positioned about 70 cm below the reactor device in order not to damage the camera itself from the heat transferred by rising convective air currents.
The almost constant radiative thermal power of the tested reactor, useful for estimating COP.
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The Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the reactor device was obtained as the ratio between the total energy emitted by the device (radiated power + the power dispersed by convection) and the energy consumed by its three resistor coils. The resulting COP, with many conservative assumptions, was 5.6 +/- 0.8 (would be 4.5 taking into account only the radiative energy).
R. Ventola – Electrical engineer
I tried to check the popularity of the E-Cat and of LENR objectively with the help of Google Trends, a powerful analysis tool launched by Google in 2006. Google Trends allows to see how often specific search terms are being entered into Google search engine over time.
With Google Trends the popularity of up to five terms can be compared. And you can also view queries that contain either or two terms, using a vertical bar “|”. More advanced queries can be done as well. Google also puts markers next to major news events that are about that search query, helping to explain surges. Data can be sorted by time, language, geographic location, etc.
The results obtained by this approach seem to be quite interesting for many aspects.
The most searched query about the E-Cat is “E-Cat Rossi” (100), followed by “E-Cat news” (35), “E-Cat fusion” (30), Andrea Rossi (25) and “E-Cat Andrea Rossi” (25), while the simple “E-Cat” (15) is only seventh. Germany results the country most interested in LENR (100, see figure below), followed by Italy (95), USA (93), Canada (70), United Kingdom (53), France (47).
The countries most interested in web searches on “LENR” and on “E-Cat Rossi”. The results of the two searches agree with each other, but not if you search for the word “E-Cat”!
These are very useful information, through which I discovered that the simple word “E-Cat” can’t be used for checking trend statistics because this expression, especially in some countries as Czech Republic, refers also to completely different things. Indeed, if you check the popularity by country, you find that “E-Cat” is most popular in Czech Republic, but it is not our E-Cat!
So, I made my further analysis of the trends over time only on “E-Cat Rossi” instead of “E-Cat”.
In the picture below you can see compared the number of “Google Searches” and of “Google News” for the two search terms “LENR” and “E-Cat Rossi”. I have added on the graph the main events regarding the E-Cat to explain the most prominent surges.
The comparative number of “Google Searches” and “Google News” for the terms “LENR” and “E-Cat Rossi” (data from Google Trends appropriately processed and integrated).
It can be noted that the interest for LENR normally follows that for the E-Cat, as you can see from the time-shift between the quite similar red and blue curves.
You can see in both case – LENR and E-Cat – a clear overall trend of decreasing interest, probably due to the fact that the public demos and tests have not been considered conclusive and that the corporate communication was not appropriate to the “hostile” environment. This means that the destiny of LENR, also in terms of reputation, is strongly linked to that of the E-Cat.